Blog Posts

September Production Update and Spare Parts Availability

The US factory’s aerospace-grade spring samples are technically excellent – they meet or exceed all the tolerances specified – but the spring sound is not yet perfect. It’s a little too sharp/high pitched. Either the material alloy is off or they were heat treated a little too long/too high a temperature is my guess. Or maybe the sound dulls a bit over time and with corrosion of the original springs after 30 years.

The factory suggested I have the original springs analyzed at a material analysis lab – I have sent off some original XT springs to a lab. They can determine with reasonable accuracy the content of the original springs. We should know more next week.

Meanwhile the main factory is still preparing to finish up production of the remaining parts – inner assembly plates, boxes, inner foam, outside foam, and ultra compact cases. I am hoping to have these completed parts, key samples from the new mold supplier, and all the springs by early November.

The other parts completed earlier this year and are sitting in boxes waiting to be assembled:  original die cast zinc powdercoated cases, PCBs, ribbon cables, barrels, USB cables, and flippers.  Thanks everyone for hanging in there as we perfect production of Brand New Model F Keyboards!

While you wait for your order, I am asking that you consider, if funds allow, getting a Model F First Aid repair kit for long after production ends and orders are no longer taken.  The more kits and parts are ordered and out in the community, the greater the number of extant Model F’s will be in the decades to come. So far we have over 3,800 extra barrels and flippers, 60 extra factory made inner foams, and about 133 first aid kits ordered for ~850 keyboard orders.

Feel free to pick free/other shipping when adding small extras to your original order and I will combine the shipping.

F62/F77 First Aid/Repair Kit for the future

 

 

Featured on IBM’s Tumblr page today!

A great honor from Big Blue.

The project was featured on IBM’s official Tumblr page today!

http://ibmblr.tumblr.com/post/164338069961/love-at-first-type-many-love-stories-start-with

August production update

The main theme continues – it was tougher than the factories and I expected to meet IBM’s exacting standards and tolerances from 35 years ago.

Instead of delivering functional keyboards and meeting the original factory timeline (I’ve been typing on the fully working prototypes without issue this year), I want to make sure these keyboards live up to the quality standards of the originals for the clickiest, most musical typing experience possible, even at the cost of time (rejecting parts) until these standards are met. Eventually they have been met for the other critical parts, many of which finished production and are waiting in boxes at the factory for assembly (tens of thousands of barrels/flippers, the die cast zinc cases, capacitive PCBs, controllers, custom IDE/floppy style ribbon cables have finished production).  Check out a few blog posts back for a detailed production update by part.

Dimensions on the keys that are off by just 0.5mm do not function well (I received the latest key samples this week). Spring free length variances are too large for a more consistent feel.

I cancelled the spring contract last month due to poor part tolerances and I expect to cancel the key mold contract as well and move it to another manufacturer this month. While this is going on I will have assembly start on the rest of the components to avoid any bottlenecking so we keep on schedule.

The springs are going to be made in the US. Almost none of the US-based spring factories had the equipment to manufacture springs to IBM’s 1980s tolerances and automatically discard all springs that do not meet the tolerances (at least one does – the one I am working with). Some US factories could only meet 4x IBM’s original tolerances!

The factory said that these springs’ tolerances are as tight as those of their aerospace customers.

I will be ordering sample springs this coming week for evaluation and then if they are good I will order all the springs from this factory – everyone will get the US-made springs.

My NPR Interview tonight!

It is an honor to be a guest tonight on NPR’s evening program All Things Considered!

The 3 minute segment on the Model F keyboards will air around 7:30 or 8pm, at least in NY. Please tune in to your local station to listen!

Update – The audio is now posted here: http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/07/14/537290841/this-10-pound-keyboard-from-the-1980s-is-making-a-comeback

Featured on the PopularMechanics.com and PCMag.com home pages today!

It was an honor for the Model F project to be featured on the home pages of www.PopularMechanics.com and PCMag.com today!

Eric from Popular Mechanics wrote a comprehensive and well-researched look at the Model F project and the history behind the Model F mechanical keyboard.

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/a27123/model-f-project-buckling-spring-keyboard/

Screenshot from www.PopularMechanics.com 7/5/17.

 

And here is the PC Magazine article on the project today:

http://www.pcmag.com/news/354767/keyboard-enthusiast-sells-brand-new-ibm-model-f

 

What makes up a Model F Keyboard? + Detailed production status of each part

We just reached the quarter million dollar order mark!  Over $250,000 in orders so far!

There is still time to place your order.  Here is a link to the order form where you can customize your layout (ANSI, HHKB, international ISO, etc.), colors (off-white/beige, Industrial Gray, Black, True Red), etc.: https://www.modelfkeyboards.com/product-category/main-f62f77-offering/

 

What parts and technologies make up a Brand New Model F Keyboard, what does each part do, and what is the production status of each part?

 

Barrels and Flippers – all production complete

These are the key (pun intended) parts of the Model F.  The barrels hold each key in place and allow for smooth up-down movement as keys are actuated.  The capacitive flippers make contact with the capacitive PCB and complete the signal when a key is pressed.

Powdercoated Die Cast Zinc Cases – all production complete for Off-White/Beige, Industrial Gray, Black, True Red, and Silver Gray cases

These cases are made from a dense, high quality zinc metal and powdercoated so that the texture and colors match that of the originals – the IBM Industrial SSK and the IBM Model F metal case keyboard.  These cases are sturdy and will not flex or break when you are typing.  These help contribute to the 8 to 10 pound weight of each F62/F77 keyboard!

The factory did an outstanding job with texture and color matching.  Can you tell which case below is the original and which is the reproduction?

Industrial SSK original with powdercoated F62 case

Controller PCBs – all production complete for factory built/factory assembled compact xwhatsit controllers

Also complete is the new open source firmware/cross-platform GUI configuration software by xwhatsit, native NKRO / USB functionality with removable USB cable.  Typing on a brand new F77 keyboard for this post, with one of these controllers – all is working well!

Ribbon cables – all production complete

The controller PCBs connect to the capacitive PCB underneath all the keys with a ribbon cable like those on the old IDE / Floppy Drives.

Capacitive PCBs – all production complete for F62 regular, F62 HHKB style split right shift, F77 regular, F77 HHKB style split right shift, and custom F62

The Model F design completely seals all the capacitive PCB contacts so that they are not exposed to air/wear and tear – one reason why Model F’s last so long.  The flipper never actually contacts the copper inside the PCB directly, but the conductivity of the flipper material allows for a signal bridge between the two rectangles of each key when activated).

Inside foam – currently in production; expected to finish in a month or two

The inside foam ensures even pressure of the barrels against the inner assembly, and also a way of minimizing dust and other debris entering the inner assembly.  Each one is custom stamped to match the top inner assembly cutouts for the barrels, whether for the standard or HHKB style layouts.

Buckling springs – currently waiting for updated samples that more closely match the original Model F springs; production will take under one month once samples are confirmed for production.

The buckling of the spring causes the flipper/pivot plate to be pressed down on the capacitive PCB, thus completing the circuit and sending the pressed key’s signal.

Top and bottom inner assembly; ultra compact cases – currently retooling; production expected to finish in a couple months

The sample parts were slightly off spec so I rejected them.  The factory is retooling their equipment to produce all accurate parts.  I reject out of spec parts that do not meet my quality standards, even though this has caused delays in the project.  The end results though have been great so far (check out my earlier post on the challenges of making parts from the 1980s and the importance of quality control for this project).

The top and bottom inner assembly hold all the keys, barrels, flippers, and capacitive PCB securely in place.  To maximize the performance, sharpness and clickiness of the Model F it is important that these parts be built to spec exactly, as they were in the 80s.

The compact cases are made of high quality but lightweight anodized aluminum – great for frequent travelers.  The compact cases cut the weight down to about 3 or 4 pounds from 8 to 10 pounds of the original style cases.

Dye Sublimated PBT Keys – currently retooling; production expected to finish in a couple months

The factory has had significant delays adjusting the molds to ready them for production but they are expected to finish the tooling this month and then the keys can be injection molded.  They are designed to match the original IBM XT key quality.  Dye sublimation allows the keys to resist wear of the legends after decades of usage as the sublimation ink is absorbed into the key, not just sprayed on top like with the most common keyboard legend printing today, pad printing.

Product packaging – boxes and outside foam – outside foam is going into production this month; currently waiting for corrected box samples that use thick double walled cardboard for maximum protection during shipping

The goal of the Brand New Model F Keyboards project is a high quality product with the finest materials designed to last for decades.  Packaging is designed to be similar to the original packaging for these keyboards (I am one of two original IBM F77 6019303 keyboard owners on the forums – I have one brand new with original foam packaging).  These keyboards are also among the easiest to take apart and repair yourself – videos will be posted on how to do common repairs to keep your Model F typing along in the decades to come.  Just make sure you order the First Aid Kit for future repairs – it includes springs, foam, and other parts that I’ve seen fail with the original keyboards after decades of use.

Any questions, feel free to message me or post on the Q&A page.

Joe

 

Brand New Model F Keyboards project update; new first-run production photos; order window still open!

Any questions, feel free to submit through the web site, email me, or message me/post on r/MK (I am u/1954bertonespyder) or GeekHack/Deskthority (I am Ellipse)

I am typing on a fully assembled new prototype F62!

We are getting there – thanks to everyone for their patience with the factory delays.

The feel is very comfortable to type on. Another buckling spring fan in my family hit 112 WPM on 10fastfingers with this first-run F62! You can really notice the difference with new springs that have not been worn out and oxidized after 30 years, some more than others – creating an uneven typing experience with a high-mileage Model F.

Everything is working very well so far. The powdercoated die cast zinc cases are excellent quality. It was well worth the couple extra months to get the paint job right. The off-white/beige color is almost an exact match to the 1988 F107 case I mailed them as the reference.

The texture is the same bumpy, mostly matte but slightly reflective powdercoating as the original. The True Red and Black cases look good. In the next week or two they will mail the Industrial cases.

The capacitive PCBs, controller PCBs, inner foam, and outside foam are all good. Every PCB is being grounded in two spots to the bottom inner assembly with 6-32 screws to eliminate the risk of stray capacitive signals.

There were a number of issues that I have told the factory to work on and prioritize for completion as soon as possible. Some notes:

The top inner assembly parts are very good but slightly off spec. The TIA curve is about 1mm off from the ideal. My XT sample has a perfect curve that matches my CAD files exactly so I have asked the factory to remake the samples to this standard. The perfect curve helps ensure a more even pressure on the barrels between the top and bottom inner assembly. The wrong curve can result in wiggly barrels and clicks that are not as sharp so it is important that they get it right. To correct this issue they are going to adjust their tooling and mail corrected parts ASAP.

The compact cases had some issues with the color of the hard anodizing being slightly off. They are adding another couple screws on the bottom to further secure the case.

The product boxes were 2.5mm thickness instead of the 5.0mm I had specified so those were rejected, though the box artwork is well-printed.

Finally the springs are very close to the originals but I want to see a few more spring samples with different materials before the springs go into production.
The springs have improved sound but the top inner assembly needs to be re-made and accurately curved before the Model F sound is at its sharpest. Currently it’s well within the range of the original Model F’s that have gone through my refurbishings over the years.

www.ModelFKeyboards.com – New Buckling Spring Keyboards

5-6-17 Quick Update

For a more thorough update please see the previous post (below).

The factory is still working on adjusting the key molds – I am frustrated by these delays too but will only accept parts that meet my high quality control standards and function as well as the originals.

In the mean time, all the other first run parts appear to be finished! I am expecting them to ship everything out except the keys in the coming days.

When these first-run parts arrive I will examine each part and if it is all good, production will start on the remaining parts! (Top/bottom inner assemblies, springs, hard anodized compact cases, keys, boxes, and inner/outside foam).

The factory expects production and assembly to take 2-3 months, and then these will all ship from China to me for final testing and shipping (generally) in sequence of when you placed your order.

Here are the first run compact cases – please note that these colors are not accurate and are not representative of what anyone will get:

Here is the new batch of finished springs:

4-11-17 major update catch-up – How close are we?

I hope this post will catch everyone up for those who have not been following the threads and blog posts as closely, and also if you are interested in how things are made.

As an update we passed $200,000 in orders a month or so back (actually over $210,000 now!) and have about 455 keyboards ordered so far. As many of you know the project has faced some challenges but these production delays are being wrapped up this month. Tens of thousands of parts are completed and sitting at the factory in storage, waiting for the other parts to finish production and then assembly can start: these parts include all the die cast zinc cases made from brand new molds-cases we successfully powdercoated to match the original Model F keyboard style and color. Also the barrels, flippers, capacitive PCBs, compact xwhatsit controllers, case molds, and ribbon cables. We are still waiting on the key molds, keys, inner assembly plates, ultra compact cases, and the final “easier” parts (boxes, inner foam, outside foam packaging).

The turnaround time for the factory is longer than expected for correcting issues before the run starts but it is understandable given my quality standards and the unique aspects of bringing back 1980s production parts. They have been very patient working with me for going on 3 years now.

The factory timeframe I believe was based on expectations of standard parts requests and finishes – they didn’t know how challenging this project would be for the nonstandard requests, nor did I.

The factory is actually building or adjusting their tooling for the special characteristics of this project. For example they are building a machine that curves the PCB to match that of the originals as there was no equipment that could delicately deal with PCB curving without damaging the copper traces. There is also tooling that precisely makes the inner assembly parts to the IBM Model F curve.

The parts requiring the most amount of work, the die cast original style cases, took 3 months for die casting, final machining, and powdercoating. Before then was maybe 3-4 months for making the molds and adjusting the powdercoating and texture.

The die cast case powdercoating process took months because the factory had to experiment with different paints and textures to match the original bumpy Model F 4704 texture – using standard powdercoating for the prototypes did not take long. The kind of texture and paint color did not exist (no Pantone color!) so everything had to be custom mixed until the colors were a perfect match to the 4704 case sample from 1988 that I provided. Then the powdercoating for some of the paint they tried did not stick well to the zinc so they had to switch to another type of paint. They ended up having to mix the custom made texture into the custom color powdercoat paint to get everything perfect.

The flippers and barrels were made from different proprietary materials (options had to be researched by the engineers) that were close approximations of the original plastic formulations that were never precisely disclosed back in the day (they work and the flippers perfectly convey the capacitive signal).

Here I recap examples of first try prototype adjustments needed – the passed parts are listed in the OP “finished production” section:

– Original cases – powdercoating color and texture needed a few tries to get right and accurately match the originals (which they do now). Their earlier samples were very well made (and without much delay) to high modern standards but did not match the texture and color of the originals.

– Barrels – some measurement errors on my part of fractions of 1 mm caused the barrels not to interface with the keys like the originals; had to have them adjust the molds

– Keys – one critical dimension of the keys was not to my spec, probably 0.5mm off spec which made the keys not buckle consistently.

– Springs – they tried a number of materials; also the spring measurements were not accurate enough, under 1 mm difference but it is noticeable and could prevent a key from buckling

– Inner assembly plates – they were not to spec, maybe under 1 mm too large (the width of space between the top and bottom inner assembly plates. The first ones had holes that were too small to fit the barrels and some of the powdercoating was flaking.

In all cases I have held the factory to my standards and have rejected substandard parts.

Once they determine exactly what is needed, production is approved to start and there should not be much of a delay due to rejection of parts.

The f62 original should be about 7.5lbs and the f77 original should be 8.3 or so pounds, (my original f77 is “only” 7.2 pounds!), 3.4lbs for the compact f62 and maybe around 4lbs for the compact f77.

Quick project update 4-4-17

451 F62/F77 Keyboards ordered so far – over $210,000 in total orders!

F77 216
F62 166
Industrial SSK Blue Keys 61
Front-printed keys F1, etc. 49
Extra steel spacebar tabs (pair) 43
Extra inner foam (F62, F77, F62 split shift, F77 split shift, F107, F122) 40
Compact F77 40
Extra Set of Brand New Production XT-quality one-piece keys 38
FirstAidKit 36
Compact F62 29
Extra F77 Case 21
Extra F62 Case – ‘Kishsaver” 21
Apple/Mac Command-Option Keys 21
xwhatsit Beam Spring or Model F USB controller 17

The factory is waiting on a subcontractor/supplier for finishing some of the first run parts (hard anodizing, etc.) and another national holiday is this week so that has caused some delays (Tomb Sweeping Day).  Originally they were hoping to have the first run prototype parts shipped by the end of March but now we are looking at mid-April.  Once these final parts are approved production can finish on all parts!

Youtube user unboxes a new-in-box IBM Model M square silver logo keyboard from ModelFKeyboards.com

Youtube user Rællic picked up my pair of brand new factory sealed IBM Model M square silver logo 1390131 keyboards and has done a quick unboxing video.

I do have another one of these from the same shop in case anyone’s interested in getting a brand new IBM Model M square silver logo buckling spring keyboard (part 1390131).

Brand New Factory Sealed In Retail Box IBM Model M Square Silver Logo 1390131 from ~1988

 

Quick update 2-28-17

We passed $200,000 in orders this week – a major milestone!

We are still waiting on the first run prototype parts to be made and then hopefully approved. I was hoping to get these earlier but the factory has been slow to get things going after the Chinese New Year holiday. Production of all parts can start after these first-run parts are approved.  The current factory target is for first-run parts to be in hand for inspection by the end of March.

Anyone can still add to their order at this point with additional keyboards and/or accessories.

Several people suggested I offer a kit of spare parts for the future when production is long finished after this year – now you can order it through the store item “First Kid Kit.”  No need to pay for extra shipping – I will combine orders – just choose “other shipping” at checkout.

F62/F77 First Aid/Repair Kit for the future

Quick update 2-5-2017

Everyone at the factory is returning for work this week.  We passed $190,000 in orders recently!

The immediate priorities are to get in hand the remaining first-run parts made to my specifications:  buckling springs, top/bottom inner assembly, boxes, and the keys.  After these parts have been approved, production will continue from where it left off (production has finished on the flippers, barrels, original style cases, capacitive PCB, controller PCB, ribbon cable to attach the two PCBs, and USB cables).

At this point we are waiting on the factory to do everything to spec.  I will not approve or send out something that I would not want to use myself, something not to my specifications and level of quality.

Another early 2016 interview with a major tech news site about the Brand New Model F Keyboards project

Below are my replies to their questions:

 

1.  It’s tough to fully convince someone of the appeal of the Model F keyboard in just words – you have to try one out to really understand the advantages of buckling springs, including the smooth key travel of the Model F keyboard and the sharp, satisfying click when a key has been pressed.  I feel this project appeals to different people for different reasons but one major reason is that it is the very first, and so far only, project to restart production of IBM’s legendary buckling spring keyboards, now that the patents have long expired and have gone to the public domain.  It offers the only alternative if you want a keyboard with one of the most widespread mechanical keyboard switches since the 1980s that is not based on Cherry MX.

 

Here are the main perspectives of appeal for this project in my view:

 

–The typing experience:  The Model F keyboard offers the best typing experience.  If you’ve never typed on a Model F or Model M (its significantly cost reduced successor that replaced almost all the metal with plastic) it is difficult to convey the experience.  IBM’s venerated buckling spring switch technology was developed in the 1970’s and is at the core of the IBM Model F.  This keyboard switch has a delicate yet incredibly tactile response that makes typing a pure pleasure.  If one of your readers is new to mechanical keyboards, the buckling spring switch is what other mechanical switches are modeled after and compared against (especially those blue and green switches!).  Many consider the buckling spring the best switch for typing, with anecdotal claims that using a buckling spring keyboard reduced fatigue and improved accuracy (I have personally passed 100+ WPM on my Brand New Model F prototypes with a few typing tests).

 

–The quality perspective:  The Model F is probably the highest quality, mass produced keyboard anyone has or ever will type on.  You have the solidness of the keyboard:  It is a heavy keyboard that weighs 5-10 pounds depending on the model and has a metal case, steel inside plates and buckling springs.  Compare this to a mostly plastic Cherry MX style keyboard that sells for $100 to $200.  Then you have the legendary IBM moniker and its connotation of the highest quality of goods and a reputation for extreme durability.  Many 1980s and 1990s IBM keyboards are still fully functional today.  IBM’s Model F keyboard from its PC AT computer even works natively with today’s PS/2 ports, as long as you buy a passive 5 pin DIN to PS/2 adapter.  Then you have the quality of the key caps – they are made with PBT plastic which does not yellow or degrade as quickly as low grade ABS plastic common to many keyboards.  Also the key legends are dye sublimated onto the keys, meaning the ink is deeply infused into the cap instead of pad printed on top of the keys (the latter method often leaves sloppy looking or illegible legends and shiny/slippery key caps over time that make the user less productive with the keyboard).  The interaction of all of the metal plates in a Model F as a user types produces what many describe as a musical quality of the keyboard where each key sounds slightly different (the buckling springs in my project – at least for the prototypes – are actually made of a specific material that is commonly sold as piano wire!).

 

–The legacy/historical perspective:  Tens of millions of IBM buckling spring Model M and Model F keyboards were made over the 1980s and 1990s and many people fondly remember using that great clicky keyboard at work or at home.  Some may remember when they upgraded their IBM computer to another brand and only then noticed how much they missed their clicky keyboard!  Even as people upgraded their computer equipment over many years/decades, the one thing many people held on to was their IBM buckling spring keyboard, which is unique in an industry where planned obsolescence is the norm.  I do hope that these keyboards survive the test of time.  So many products people buy today develop issues in a few months’ or years’ time and are meant to be disposed of; it is great to be able to buy something made today that you can use every day and it will be there for you to use 10, 20, 30 years from now.  I hope this F77/F62 project will be like that.  I do not want to compromise a project like this by lowering standards and cutting corners to make it inferior to an original because it is something I want to be able to use and something that is on par with the original Model F keyboards that I use daily – that is why I insist on materials and production processes that meet or exceed original standards and tolerances, including lots of metal!

 

–The technical perspective:  Building from the quality perspective, the Brand New Model F keyboards project improves upon the original F’s by offering the great Model F technology in a modern 60% and 75% style layout that can be factory customized (ANSI, ISO/international layouts, HHKB style layouts, unprinted keys, etc.), full NKRO (N-Key rollover) capacitive switch sensing, native USB connectivity with no special driver required for Win/Mac/Linux/Android, and open source firmware and GUI software to fully customize your keys, function layers, and macros.

 

–The ability to get a Model F brand new, fully assembled and configured, and native USB is also a big factor – most people prefer not to clean out 30 years of gunk and hair from a used keyboard off an online auction site and spend hours washing and restoring it just for the privilege of using an IBM Model F keyboard in all its prime.  And then they need to figure out how to buy a teensy or Model F USB controller board, program firmware onto it, and configure that firmware – it’s just too time consuming but up to now it was the only way to use the best keyboard possible.  Also many Model F keyboards came with strange layouts that were difficult to get used to, such as the IBM XT keyboard.

 

–The upgrade over a Model M:  Most people who enjoy buckling spring keyboards know about IBM’s Model M clicky keyboards, and not the superior earlier model, the Model F.  While the Model F was replaced with the cheaper and now easier to obtain Model M, the Model M made some sacrifices on build quality and tactile response, replacing almost all metal with plastic.  Out was the incredibly sharp and firm click of the Model F’s flippers making direct contact with its large printed circuit board.  In was the Model M’s tiny pivot plates hitting a rubber mat and underlying plastic membrane sheets with a relatively dull thud.

 

2.  The process and history of the project:  I have been a collector of IBM buckling spring keyboards for years and was able to acquire a number of Model F keyboards through my network of IT recycler contacts, but no 62-key “Kishsaver” Model F keyboards (Kishsaver refers to a nickname given to keyboards that Deskthority contributor Kishy described in detail on his web site and helped reintroduce to the public a few years ago).  (A note on the naming conventions of this project:  While the brand new Model F keyboards from this project can support any number of keys, I chose model names that reflect their original key counts; hence they were named F62 and F77.)  To no avail I spent a while looking for more 62-key F62 Kishsavers and 77-key F77 keyboards.  Given the high demand for Kishsavers and 77-key Model F keyboards and the non-existent supply, as well as my own interest in a Kishsaver, I looked into what it would cost to bring these great keyboards with metal cases back into production, working on the CAD files and discussing ideas with a number of very smart people including professional engineers, PCB designers, and product designers, some of whom have contributed to the DT/GH/reddit forums.  I was also inspired by the significant interest and discussions on the forums regarding bringing back the Model F buckling spring keyboard.  This project is definitely not a one man show – I could not have done this project without the help of so many community members, especially xwhatsit for inventing a reliable capacitive controller replacement for Model F keyboards, as well as others whom I have not yet asked if they would like to be publicly recognized.  I have learned a lot along the way about manufacturing, PCBs, materials, micrometer measurement, CAD (computer aided design), and about the specifications of Model F keyboards.  This is a unique project in that it is the first one to bring back Model F buckling spring technology, which has been out of production for essentially 25+ years.  The buckling spring patent expired long ago, opening the door to “generics” but no projects involve brand new buckling spring keyboards made from 100% new stock.  I had to pay for all the tooling, CNC milling and molds – with no guarantees of success.  Another forum member pointed out that the Cherry MX and other custom keyboard projects have lower production costs as the individual key mechanisms are pre-made, unlike Model F components.  I have been working with my China contacts for about a year and a half on a number of projects so it was not difficult for me to work with them on this project.  My past projects included mass production of xwhatsit’s PCB’s that allowed older IBM keyboards to be USB, have full NKRO, and function on today’s computer equipment.

 

3.  I think there are many factors for the increased interest in mechanical keyboards.  One is definitely the expansion of the number of computer and gaming enthusiasts and the gaming and mechanical keyboard communities that have flourished in recent years (including reddit.com/MechanicalKeyboards, Geekhack, and Deskthority).  Another related factor is the massive growth of interest in technology in general, and not just by a subset of the population.  Many years ago it was not as common in my experience to be knowledgeable with using computers and smart phones and they were not as much an essential part of most people’s lives, but nowadays almost everyone has a smart phone and/or tablet with them at all times and uses their devices constantly throughout every single day, and even young kids are better than their parents at the computer and are online and/or gaming daily.  With this acceptance of technology into the mainstream of our culture I think it has opened the door for millions of people to want and to seek out the best of what technology has to offer in a given product category:  the newest and best iPhone or Samsung Galaxy, a brand new flat screen large-format, high definition television, the best tablet, a state of the art (possibly custom-built) computer, a car with advanced computer integrations and safety features, a high-end home stereo/surround sound/sound bar setup, etc.  Many of the mass produced keyboards with Cherry MX switches have centered their branding and marketing on being “gaming keyboards” but I feel that mechanical keyboards serve a significantly wider market as well and are even more important for the comfort and productivity of those who use computers every day, especially those who do a lot of typing.  I’ve spoken with many writers and programmers who love the Model F and other mechanical keyboards because their keyboard is one of the most important things they use every day and are willing to pay more for the best (many spend more hours typing on their keyboard than sleeping in their beds I’m sure!).  Many consider the buckling spring the best switch for typing, with anecdotal claims that using a buckling spring keyboard reduced fatigue and improved accuracy.  This is one reason mechanical keyboards in general are gaining in popularity, but unfortunately, availability has been a real problem for new buckling spring keyboards.  Keyboards with those other switches are often your only choice if you are looking for a 60% compact or tenkeyless board, since there those form factors with buckling spring switches either don’t exist or are rare and can only be acquired second-hand.

 

4.  I am a big fan and collector of the IBM buckling spring keyboards.  My very first keyboard was an IBM Model F.  The first family computer was an IBM PC (5150) or IBM PC XT (not sure the exact model) with its IBM Model F XT keyboard.  In recent years I’ve used the 122 key Model F keyboard as my daily driver thanks to Soarer’s great work with his converter and Fohat’s guide to refurbishing and adjusting the F122 layout to more of a 1391401 Model M ANSI layout.  In 2014 xwhatsit helped me to bring his Model F keyboard controllers to mass production and assembly in China at a significantly lower cost.  From a young age I have had a great interest in computers and have done a lot of typing on Model F keyboards.  I have taken them apart and repaired/restored a number of them.  But no related background for me; I am not a professional programmer or CAD person.  The professional and/or enthusiast-level background of those who have helped me with this project include programmers, PCB/hardware designers, engineers, product designers/inventors, and other Model F keyboard fans. Without them this project would not have been possible.

My full interview with a major tech news site

Here is a February 2016 interview about the Brand New Model F Keyboards project.  Here are my replies in the interview.  You can see the published press articles on the Press/Forums page.

First time bringing a product to market?  Nope – I handled two group buys for xwhatsit’s keyboard controller PCBs (one in late 2014 and one last year).  I worked with xwhatsit (Deskthority and Geekhack) to confirm the recommended parts for his open source designs and then found a great partner in China to work with, a partner I am using with the current project to bring back the IBM Model F keyboard. This initiative was the first one that mass produced xwhatsit’s PCBs.   Xwhatsit’s controllers were the first widely used controller replacements that enabled the original metal case Model  F keyboards to work with modern-day computers.  This is the first major project I’ve been involved with though.  I could not have undertaken this project without the help of so many community members from a variety of professional and enthusiast backgrounds including product design/engineering/manufacturing, circuit board design and programming, as well as fans and users of original Model F’s who helped with good advice throughout the project, which started around April of 2015 and was announced publicly at the end of June 2015.

 

I am a collector of Model F and Model M keyboards so I used my own collection to gain an understanding of how they work and to do the CAD measurements.  I actually had a few F77s and F122s (77 key 4704 F’s and 122 key Model F’s) whose parts were analyzed for this project.  Fortunately the Model F design is so easily disassembled, reassembled and repairable that no keyboards were harmed in the process.  I paid for the molds and tooling from China, which is where manufacturing and assembly of the brand new IBM Model F reproductions will take place.

 

Manufacturing of China – yes this is definitely an adventure.  The important part is to make sure you have the right partner there – one that is responsive, has excellent attention to detail, manufactures a great product to spec, and stands by their work (guarantees to re-make any out-of-spec parts).  Another key is to produce working prototypes and then make any small adjustments from there – some of the great advice I received from someone heading up another manufacturing project in China.  Yes it was a challenge getting the right materials and learning all of the terminology involved with manufacturing, including tolerances (how different from your drawings a part can be before it becomes out of spec and is not acceptable in the product).  Thankfully there were a lot of great project advisers, including those experienced both professionally and on an enthusiast basis with  product design/engineering/manufacturing, circuit board design and programming, as well as fans and users of original Model F’s who helped with good advice throughout the project.  This project and determining proper materials and production processes could not have moved forward without their understanding of and experience with manufacturing.  Another difficulty in determining the right partner in China is of economies of scale.  With such a small project, many of those in China I spoke with showed little to no interest in taking it on because they knew of all the months of back and forth that would be required to go over specifications, the hours of their engineers’ time to review CAD files, and the hours needed to tool and produce prototypes.  Unless you are making thousands of units it is a major challenge to manufacture inexpensively in China.  The issue is definitely of cost, even in China.  Tooling costs involve paying the factory for materials, labor, and the opportunity cost of “machine hours” to set up and customize a number of their factory’s machines in a way that will make your product.  Every production run requires re-tooling the machines because after your parts are made they need the machine to be set up again for another project.  Mold and tooling costs run in the tens of thousands of dollars total for this project.  Also getting the plastics right was a challenge and major risk for the project.  Model F keyboards use capacitive buckling spring technology, which requires specialized plastic that can act as an electronic bridge on the matrix PCB even though it never physically touches any exposed metal contacts.  Fortunately I had a lot of help from some professional engineers and product designers who advised me on which resins (specific types of plastic) would be a good choice for this project.  We got the plastic resin right the first time for both the major plastic parts (the “barrels” upon which the keys attach to and “flippers” attached to buckling springs – these flippers flip down when the spring is buckled and form a capacitive bridge).  I’m not sure these technical descriptions are 100% correct but here’s a link to xwhatsit’s project page which may prove a better resource if you’re interested.

http://downloads.cornall.co/ibm-capsense-usb/

 

Setbacks?  Because of the months of communication back and forth in discussion with potential suppliers as well as the great support network of mechanical keyboard enthusiasts on Deskthority, GeekHack, and R/MK (Reddit.com/MechanicalKeyboards) any problems were minor at most and corrected quickly (e.g. the foam they used for the packaging was not the one I had specified – they quickly fixed it and re-made the prototype foam pieces shown with the F62 and F77 on the Brand New Model F keyboards web site).  I did need to redo some measurements that were about 0.1mm or 0.2 mm off from IBM specs and believe it or not that made a noticeable difference in the functionality of the parts (it also cost me four figures for mold adjustments!).  The biggest surprise/setback was that PayPal decided to freeze all the project funds [now we use a major credit card processor, Authorize.

 

Electronics – All electronics and software for the Brand New Model F keyboards project were conceived, designed, and programmed by Deskthority forum member xwhatsit.  It is my understanding that he completely disregarded IBM’s original controller design and went back to the 1970s buckling spring patents (now long expired and in the public domain) to redesign the software and hardware from scratch.  The capacitive PCB (the big PCB underneath the keys that contributes to the extra clickness of Model F keyboards over Model M keyboards) has a very similar layout to the originals.  Yes this project just uses xwhatsit’s open source Model F USB controller soldered by ribbon cable (like the original Model F’s) to the capacitive PCB.  I may not end up using xwhatsit’s controller, however, as I am considering another design currently in development on the keyboard forums.

Working Compact Case F62/F77 prototypes are finally here! + Questions for you

I know that many of you were waiting to see photos and video of the working compact case prototypes in action before placing an order.  Well they are here and they pass inspection!  See the photos and video here:

https://geekhack.org/index.php?topic=79141.msg2329617#msg2329617

For those who ordered the classic style die cast zinc powdercoated cases, all those orders are in production!  Each part is in a different stage of production; most of the parts have finished production, including the powdercoated cases.  So we are just waiting on those remaining parts and the final assembly of each keyboard.  Then the finished keyboards will ship to me by sea mail from the factory in China.  After a few weeks the container ship should arrive in NY where I will be testing each keyboard one by one to make sure it passes my strict quality standards.  I expect to wrap everything up before mid-2017.

The factory has done excellent work so far and I’ve been using the fully working prototype F77/F62 keyboard for about 11 months now as my daily driver (including as I write this update!).

The delays in recent months were primarily due to my strict quality standards (rejecting factory samples one after another until they got it right) as well as factory delays.  I’ve learned that complex, high quality products made from brand new molds take significantly longer to manufacture than the factory’s estimates.

For those who are thinking of ordering an F62 or F77, you still have time to order but once the final round deadline passes, no more orders will be accepted.

Check out the die cast molds, thousands of barrels and capacitive flippers, the finished powdercoated cases, the ultra compact case prototypes, the new xwhatsit compact PCBs powering these keyboards, and other factory photos from the production process.  It shows unfinished parts in production as well as finished parts.

Newly added original buckling spring keyboards now available to order!  Including an Industrial SSK, brand new Square Silver Logo original IBM Model M 1390131 keyboards in full retail packaging, new in box and used early 1990s Model M’s, original PC AT Model F keyboards, and more.

If anyone else wants to help with this project, the most important thing I could use help with is on the marketing strategy.  I would like to have the ability to make as many new Model F keyboards as possible!  If anyone can offer some help it would be greatly appreciated!
SUMMARY OF EVERYTHING THIS BUY INCLUDES
* Basic keyboard models:  F62, F77, Ultra Compact F62, Ultra Compact F77
* One-piece XT-style keycaps made from new molds, including Industrial SSK style blue keys – extra sets are also available separately
* Extra parts also available separately including Model F (AT) compatible barrels, flippers, cases, PCBs, inner foam, and inner assemblies
* Available layouts:  ANSI:  US and HHKB style with split backspace and regular non-split backspace.  ISO:  Vertical enter with a variety of international layout variants:  Spanish, German, Nordic, French, UK, etc.

IN PRODUCTION
* Ultra compact cases
* Key molds / keys / buckling springs
* Inner assembly plates
* Boxes / inner foam / outside foam packaging

FINISHED PRODUCTION
* Die cast zinc cases (powdercoating is done too – the die cast cases are all finished!)
* barrels
* flippers
* capacitive PCBs
* compact xwhatsit controllers
* case molds
* ribbon cables (to connect controllers to capacitive PCBs)

ORDERS LOCKED
* Cases and other parts have been ordered, so please no major changes!  Adding to your order is OK as I am making extras for the early bird round (see below)!

STILL CAN BE ORDERED
* Everything.  I have ordered extra keyboards and parts for the early bird round, which will be ongoing while supplies last.  Then there will be a final round for about a month after the early bird keyboards are delivered.

QUESTIONS FOR YOU – please reply!
* How did you hear about the project, for those not following the Deskthority/Geekhack/reddit threads and posts?
* How do you plan on using your F62/F77?  From those I’ve spoken with so far, there are quite a few programmers and writers.
* What part of the project convinced you to be a part of the group buy?
* For those who haven’t ordered yet, is anything holding you back?  Was anything not presented well on the web site, that could be fixed?  Any other questions feel free to reply to this email or PM me on the forums and I will get back to you.
* Do you have any advice on marketing/getting in the media?  Which relevant news sites/blogs/authors do you like?  I probably need to get some F62/F77 review samples out before the end of the final round.

Comprehensive Production Update

Here is a comprehensive production update for those who have not been on the forums recently.  Everyone still has time to order but once the final round deadline passes, no more orders will be accepted.  Please check the web site for the deadline.

The most important thing I could use help with is on the marketing strategy.  I would like to have the ability to make as many new Model F keyboards as possible!  If anyone can offer some help it would be greatly appreciated!

 

SUMMARY OF EVERYTHING THIS BUY INCLUDES
* Basic keyboard models:  F62, F77, Ultra Compact F62, Ultra Compact F77
* One-piece XT-style keycaps made from new molds, including Industrial SSK style blue keys – extra sets are also available separately
* Extra parts also available separately including Model F (AT) compatible barrels, flippers, cases, PCBs, inner foam, and inner assemblies
* Available layouts:  ANSI:  US and HHKB style with split backspace and regular non-split backspace.  ISO:  Vertical enter with a variety of international layout variants:  Spanish, German, Nordic, French, UK, etc.

IN PRODUCTION
* Ultra compact cases
* Key molds / keys / buckling springs
* Inner assembly plates
* Boxes / inner foam / outside foam packaging

FINISHED PRODUCTION
* Die cast zinc cases (powdercoating is done too – the die cast cases are all finished!)
* barrels
* flippers
* capacitive PCBs
* compact xwhatsit controllers
* case molds
* ribbon cables (to connect controllers to capacitive PCBs)

ORDERS LOCKED
* Cases and other parts have been ordered, so please no major changes!

STILL CAN BE ORDERED
* Everything.  I have ordered extra keyboards and parts for the early bird round, which will be ongoing while supplies last.  Then there will be a final round for about a month after the early bird keyboards are delivered.

Here are over 100 production photos of the foam, metal parts, boxes, controllers, powdercoated die cast zinc cases, ribbon cables, etc.  It shows unfinished parts in production as well as finished parts.

www.ModelFKeyboards.com - New Buckling Spring Keyboards